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International Fisheries Management by
Publication Date: 2015-01-01
In 2006 Congress recognised the need for international cooperation to address some of the most significant issues affecting international fisheries today: illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing and fishing practices that may undermine the sustainability of living marine resources. In 2010, Congress focused on the need for enhanced international action to conserve and protect sharks in passing the Shark Conservation Act. By requirement, the Secretary of Commerce, in biennial reports, is to identify nations whose fishing vessels are engaged in certain IUU fishing, bycatch, and shark fishing practices; describe U.S. consultations with the identified countries to urge appropriate actions; and certify whether such actions subsequent to identification have adequately addressed the offending activities. The Secretary of Commerce has delegated authority to identify and certify countries under the Moratorium Protection Act to the NOAA Assistant Administrator for Fisheries. The Secretary of Commerce is also directed, in consultation with the Secretary of State and in cooperation with relevant regional fishery management councils and any relevant advisory committees, to take certain actions to improve the effectiveness of international fishery management organizations in conserving and managing stocks under their jurisdiction. This book surveys efforts by the United States to strengthen its leadership toward improving international fisheries management and enforcement, particularly with regard to IUU fishing, bycatch of protected living marine resources (PLMRs), and certain shark fishing practices. Furthermore, this book covers issues that have been identified during congressional hearings and in legislation introduced during the last three Congresses, some of which include the flexibility in rebuilding overfished fisheries; annual catch limits; uncertainty and data needs; catch shares (limited access privilege programs); management process and decision making; bycatch; and environmental quality.
A Fishery for Modern Times by
Publication Date: 2001-02-01
In the early 1990s, the northern cod populations off the coast of Newfoundland had become so depleted that the federal government placed a moratorium on commercial fishing. The impact was devastating, both for Newfoundland's economy and for local fishing communities. Today, although this natural resource - exploited commercially for over 500 years - appears to be returning in diminished numbers, many fisheries scientists and fishers question whether the cod will ever return to its former abundance. In A Fishery for Modern Times, Miriam Wright argues that the recent troubles in the fishery can be more fully understood by examining the rise of the industrial fishery in the mid-twentieth century. The introduction of new harvesting technologies and the emergence of 'quick freezing', in the late 1930s, eventually supplanted household production by Newfoundland's fishing families. While the new technologies increased the amount of fish caught in the northwest Atlantic, Wright argues that the state played a critical role in fostering and financing the industrial frozen fish sector. Many bureaucrats and politicians, including Newfoundland's premier, Joseph Smallwood, believed that making the Newfoundland fishery 'modern', with centralization, technology, and expertise, would transform rural society, solving deep-seated economic and social problems. A Fishery for Modern Times examines the ways in which the state, ideologies of development, and political, economic, and social factors, along with political actors and fishing company owners, contributed to the expansion of the industrial fishery from the 1930s through the 1960s. While the promised prosperity never fully materialized, the continuing reliance on approaches favouring high-tech, big capital solutions put increasing pressure on cod populations in the years that followed. As Wright concludes, 'We can no longer afford to view the fisheries resources as "property" of the state and industry, to do with it as they choose. That path had led only to devastation of the resource, economic instability, and great social upheaval.'
Economics of Fisheries Development by
Publication Date: 2013-11-07
Following the introduction of the 200-mile extended economic zone (EEZ), many developing countries suddenly found they had large fish resources, which - wisely managed and exploited - could generate wealth and income of immense benefit. However, one constraint to this was that many countries, for historic reasons, lacked the expertise to manage fisheries on this scale. Despite the need for information, few economists and especially development economists teaching in universities and colleges were able to incorporate fisheries economics into their courses owing to the lack of readily accessible material. As a result, many rising economists were failing to recognize the global importance of fishers as an economic resource capable of generating substantial wealth and income to many countries. Economics of Fisheries Development provides an accessible exploration of this area of economics, introducing development economists to some of the problems of developing fisheries in areas of the world where fisheries now present great growth prospects. The case studies used throughout the book are nearly entirely drawn from developing countries.
Inspection and Control of Mediterranean Fishery Products and Live Bivalve Mollusks by
Publication Date: 2016-01-01
The fishery products and bivalve mollusks sector is certainly one of the most complex in term of sanitary and commercial topics, considering the high number of species that require a precise identification. For all these reasons, the knowledge and the skills in this field remain prerogative of a few experts on the subject and operators who, in time and for various reasons, have acquired specific knowledge and skills. On the other hand, the evolution of community legislation, and especially the growing worldwide interest for fishery products and bivalve mollusks, requires a common system of traceability and labeling aimed at increasing the transparency in commercial transactions, facilitating the identification of the fish and mollusks species and increasing consumer confidence. In this perspective, the proposed publication stands as an easy reference tool intended for all the stakeholders involved in the Mediterranean seafood chain, and in which some essential elements of the community rules relating to inspection and control of fishery products and bivalve mollusks are revealed. The presence of illustrations will represent a quick and easy way to acquire the essential information to identify the main Mediterranean fishery products and bivalve mollusks of commercial interest.